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In flash memory, each memory cell resembles a standard MOSFET except that the transistor has two gates instead of one.The cells can be seen as an electrical switch in which current flows between two terminals (source and drain) and is controlled by a floating gate (FG) and a control gate (CG)., On top is the control gate (CG), as in other MOS transistors, but below this there is a floating gate (FG) insulated all around by an oxide layer.Its endurance may be from as little as 100 erase cycles for an on-chip flash memory, NOR-based flash was the basis of early flash-based removable media; Compact Flash was originally based on it, though later cards moved to less expensive NAND flash.NAND flash has reduced erase and write times, and requires less chip area per cell, thus allowing greater storage density and lower cost per bit than NOR flash; it also has up to 10 times the endurance of NOR flash.In addition to being non-volatile, flash memory offers fast read access times, although not as fast as static RAM or ROM.Its mechanical shock resistance helps explain its popularity over hard disks in portable devices, as does its high durability, ability to withstand high pressure, temperature and immersion in water, etc.

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Over half the energy used by a 1.8 V NAND flash chip is lost in the charge pump itself.The FG is interposed between the CG and the MOSFET channel.Because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, electrons placed on it are trapped until they are removed by another application of electric field (e.g. Counter-intuitively, placing electrons on the FG sets the transistor to the logical "0" state.Because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over non-flash EEPROM when writing large amounts of data.As of 2013, flash memory costs much less than byte-programmable EEPROM and had become the dominant memory type wherever a system required a significant amount of non-volatile solid-state storage.

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