The earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus Mercatorum, meaning Merchants' Harbour or, in the Danish of the time, Købmannahavn.
Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.
The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.
Originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour", often simply Hafn or Havn ("harbour").
The literal English translation would be "chapman's haven".
Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.
The Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train and Lokaltog (private railway) and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs.
After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment.
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Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund.
Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre.
Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.